Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were established as a new model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. An oral adsorbent, AST-120, is effective in removing such uremic toxins as indoxyl sulfate and delays the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). This study was designed to determine the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CRF in uninephrectomized OLETF (1/2NxOLETF) rats and the localization of indoxyl sulfate in their kidneys. Four weeks after unilateral nephrectomy, 14 OLETF rats were divided into two groups; AST-120-administered and control 1/2NxOLETF rats. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats, which are genetically similar to the OLETF rats but not diabetic, were also included. After the administration of AST-120 for 36 weeks, we examined the effects of AST-120 on renal functional and pathological changes in the three groups. The control 1/2NxOLETF rats showed marked hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, renal failure, glomerular sclerosis, and tubulointerstitial injury. The administration of AST-120 to the 1/2NxOLETF rats retarded the progression of renal dysfunction and fibrosis, as well as hyperlipidemia, and reduced serum and urinary levels of indoxyl sulfate. Immunohistochemistry showed that AST-120 markedly reduced the overload of indoxyl sulfate in tubular epithelial cells, especially dilated tubules, of the 1/2NxOLETF rats. In conclusion, AST-120 delayed the progression of renal failure and fibrosis in 1/2NxOLETF rats and decreased the overload of indoxyl sulfate on renal tubular cells.