The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure was recently published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases. This publication provides 27 clinical practice guidelines for adults and 10 clinical practice guidelines for children. The adult guidelines focus primarily on patients undergoing maintenance dialysis therapy, although there are several clinical practice guidelines on nutritional issues for patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF) not undergoing dialysis therapy. The pediatric guidelines focus entirely on children undergoing maintenance dialysis treatment. The present article discusses a number of the more prominent clinical practice guidelines for the adults. Among these is the recommendation that the protein-energy nutritional status in these patients should be assessed by a panel of measures rather than by any single measure. Also, non-dialyzed patients with advanced CRF (ie, glomerular filtration rate <25 mL/min) and those undergoing maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis should be prescribed a dietary energy intake of 35 kcal/kg/day for patients who are <60 years of age and 30 kcal/kg for patients >/=60 years of age. Maintenance hemodialysis patients should be prescribed 1.2 g protein/kg/d; chronic peritoneal dialysis patients should be prescribed 1.2 to 1.3 g protein/kg/d. For non-dialyzed patients with CRF (glomerular filtration rate <25 mL/min), 0.60 g protein/kg/d should be prescribed. For patients who will not accept such a diet or are unable to maintain an adequate energy intake on that diet, a protein intake of up to 0.75 g protein/kg/d may be prescribed. At least 50% of the protein intake for all of these patients should be of high biologic value. A guideline concerning indications for inaugurating maintenance dialysis treatment or renal transplantation on the basis of deteriorating nutritional status is also given.