The authors examined the effect of antidepressant treatment on cognitive performances in people with mild traumatic brain injury. An 8-week nonrandomized, single-blind, placebo run-in trial of sertraline was completed and neuropsychological testing measures were compared before and after the treatment trial. Results showed improvements in psychomotor speed, recent verbal memory, recent visual memory, and general cognitive efficiency. Improvements were also seen in self-perception of cognitive symptomatology. It appears that successful depression treatment resulted in significant alleviation of cognitive impairments, which may not have been accounted for by natural recovery alone.