ER stress induces cleavage of membrane-bound ATF6 by the same proteases that process SREBPs

Mol Cell. 2000 Dec;6(6):1355-64. doi: 10.1016/s1097-2765(00)00133-7.

Abstract

ATF6 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that activates genes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 is cleaved to release its cytoplasmic domain, which enters the nucleus. Here, we show that ATF6 is processed by Site-1 protease (S1P) and Site-2 protease (S2P), the enzymes that process SREBPs in response to cholesterol deprivation. ATF6 processing was blocked completely in cells lacking S2P and partially in cells lacking S1P. ATF6 processing required the RxxL and asparagine/proline motifs, known requirements for S1P and S2P processing, respectively. Cells lacking S2P failed to induce GRP78, an ATF6 target, in response to ER stress. ATF6 processing did not require SCAP, which is essential for SREBP processing. We conclude that S1P and S2P are required for the ER stress response as well as for lipid synthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 6
  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Endopeptidases / genetics
  • Endopeptidases / metabolism*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism*
  • Heat-Shock Proteins*
  • Humans
  • Immunoblotting
  • Intracellular Membranes / metabolism*
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Proprotein Convertases*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / drug effects
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Serine Endopeptidases / genetics
  • Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism*
  • Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
  • Thapsigargin / pharmacology
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Tunicamycin / pharmacology

Substances

  • ATF6 protein, human
  • Activating Transcription Factor 6
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • RNA, Messenger
  • SREBF1 protein, human
  • SREBP cleavage-activating protein
  • Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tunicamycin
  • Thapsigargin
  • Endopeptidases
  • Proprotein Convertases
  • Serine Endopeptidases
  • membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1
  • SREBP site 2 protease
  • molecular chaperone GRP78