After intraperitoneal inoculation with Listeria monocytogenes, gammadelta T cells appear in the peritoneal cavity preceding the appearance of alphabeta T cells. Such gammadelta T cells predominantly express T-cell receptor (TCR)Vgamma1/Vdelta6, develop through an extrathymic pathway, and contribute to host defence against the bacteria. We have observed a gradual increase in gammadelta T cells in kidneys of mice after intrarenal inoculation with L. monocytogenes, which resulted in an unusually long-lasting local infection. In this study, we examined the characteristics and the roles of the gammadelta T cells induced in this model. It was found that these gammadelta T cells predominantly expressed TCRVgamma6/Vdelta1 with canonical junctional sequences identical to those expressed on fetal thymocytes. Although depletion of such gammadelta T cells in vivo did not affect the number of bacteria, it resulted in histologically exacerbated inflammation in the kidneys. These results indicate that a persistent infection with L. monocytogenes in kidneys induces a different kind of gammadelta T cell from that induced after intraperitoneal infection. The former expresses invariant fetal-type Vgamma6/Vdelta1+TCR and plays a regulatory role in resolution of inflammation.