Evaluation of Tear Formation in the Dog, Using a Modification of the Schirmer Tear Test

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1975 Feb 15;166(4):368-70.


The Schirmer tear test for the measurement of tear formation in the dog was done according to 2 procedures: Schirmer I (the conventional procedure) and SCHIRMER II (with topical anesthesia and drying of the ventral conjunctival fornix. Results from 97 normal dogs averaged 21.0 mm wetting/minute (standard deviation (sd) plus or minus 4.2 mm) for the Schirmer I test and 11.6 mm wetting/minute (sd plus or minus 6.1 mm) for the Schirmer II test. When atropine was injected subcutaneously in 50 dogs (0.02 mg/kg, wetting/minute averaged 9.36 mm (Schirmer I) AND 4.32 MM (Schirmer II). Two dogs in each of 3 groups had either the lacrimal gland, gland of the membrane nictitans, or both excised. Changes in tear formation were evaluated by Schirmer I and II tear tests, as well as after parenteral administration of atropine. The lacrimal gland, the gland of the membrama mocotams. amd tje accessory lacrimal glands and mucous cells were found to contribute 6.17, 35.2, and 3.1%, respectively, to tear formation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atropine / administration & dosage
  • Atropine / pharmacology
  • Dogs / physiology*
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Lacrimal Apparatus / metabolism
  • Nictitating Membrane / metabolism
  • Tears / drug effects
  • Tears / metabolism*


  • Atropine