Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis (HBID) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevated epithelial plaques on the ocular and oral mucous membranes. It has been reported primarily, but not exclusively, in individuals of American Indian heritage in North Carolina. We have examined and obtained DNA on two large families affected by HBID. Using genetic linkage analysis we have localized the HBID gene to chromosome 4 (4q35) with a peak LOD score of 8.97. Molecular analysis of these data reveals that all individuals affected with HBID in both families demonstrate the presence of three alleles for two tightly linked markers, D4S1652 and D4S2390, which map to the telomeric region of 4q35. This suggests the presence of a duplication segregating with the disease phenotype that is most likely involved in its causation.