In the past decade strength training has been investigated extensively as a means of reversing the muscle mass loss that occurs with aging (sarcopenia). High intensity resistance training (HIRT) has led to increased protein synthesis, along with muscle hypertrophy measured at the whole body, whole muscle, and muscle fibre levels, in older adults. Typically, the strength increments associated with HIRT have been much larger than the hypertrophic response. However, most HIRT periods have been quite short. Less is known about the long-term hypertrophic response to HIRT in older adults. In order to lessen the effects of sarcopenia, HIRT should continue over the long term in older adults, to improve functional performance and health.