Statement of problem: It is unclear whether the replacement of conventional mandibular dentures with implant-supported overdentures alters the diet and thus improves the nutritional intake of edentulous persons.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the pretreatment and posttreatment diets of edentulous diabetic patients who received new dentures with either a conventional complete mandibular denture (CD) or a mandibular implant-supported overdenture (IOD).
Material and methods: New dentures were made for 89 edentulous diabetic patients with acceptable metabolic control without insulin (NIT) or with insulin (IT). A randomized approach was used to assign 37 patients a mandibular CD and 52 patients a mandibular IOD supported by 2 cylindrical implants. Of the 89 patients, 58 submitted a dietary log for 7 consecutive days before treatment (PT) and 6 months after treatment completion (PTC). An average daily intake of 28 essential nutrients was determined for each patient at each time interval. Separate 2 x 2 x 2 repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed for each nutrient to compare the means of the 2 denture groups (CD and IOD), 2 diabetic groups (NIT and IT), and 2 time intervals (PT and PTC). The intakes were also compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA).
Results: ANOVAs for all 28 nutritional variables showed no main effect for either denture type or diabetic treatment. Time effects were seen for magnesium, potassium, copper, and monounsaturated fats. The PTC mean intake of the total sample (N = 58) decreased for all 3 minerals and increased for monounsaturated fats with study dentures. Post hoc tests showed the differences between PT and PTC means to be statistically significant for only magnesium (P=.043) and potassium (P=.015). The percentage of patients with PT intake 25% or more below the RDA ranged from 33% to 85% in the CD group and from 24% to 100% in the IOD group for the same 11 nutrients. PTC fiber intake deficiency was noted in almost all participants. Carbohydrate consumption was markedly lower than that recommended by the American Diabetic Association.
Conclusion: As is often the case with elderly groups, this group of edentulous diabetic patients showed highly comprised nutritional intakes of fiber, vitamins, and minerals. The replacement of old dentures with new dentures that included either a mandibular CD or IOD did not alter patient diets such that the patients improved their nutritional intakes of essential micronutrients and macronutrients.