In-stent restenosis after carotid angioplasty-stenting: incidence and management

J Vasc Surg. 2001 Feb;33(2):220-5; discussion 225-6. doi: 10.1067/mva.2001.111880.


Purpose: Carotid angioplasty-stenting (CAS) has been advocated as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with restenotic lesions after prior CEA, primary stenoses with significant medical comorbidities, and radiation-induced stenoses. The incidence of restenosis after CAS and its management remains ill defined. We evaluated the incidence and management of in-stent restenosis after CAS.

Methods: Patients with asymptomatic (61%) and symptomatic (39%) carotid stenosis of > or = 80% underwent CAS between September 1996 and May 2000; there were 50 procedures and 46 patients (26 men and 20 women). All patients were followed up clinically and underwent duplex ultrasonography (DU) at 3- to 6-month intervals. In-stent restenoses > or = 80% detected with DU were further evaluated by means of angiography for confirmation of the severity of stenosis.

Results: No periprocedural or late strokes occurred in the 50 CAS procedures during the 30-day follow-up period. One death (2.2%) that resulted from myocardial infarction was observed 10 days after discharge following CAS. During a mean follow-up period of 18 +/- 10 months (range, 1-44 months), in-stent restenosis was observed after four (8%) of the 50 CAS procedures. Angiography confirmed these high-grade (> or = 80%) in-stent restenoses, which were successfully treated with balloon angioplasty (3) or angioplasty and restenting (1). No periprocedural complications occurred, and these patients remained asymptomatic and without recurrent restenosis over a mean follow-up time of 10 +/- 6 months.

Conclusions: We recommend CAS for post-CEA restenosis, primary stenoses in patients with high-risk medical comorbidities, and radiation-induced stenoses. In-stent restenoses occurred after 8% of CAS procedures and were managed without complications with repeat angioplasty or repeat angioplasty and restenting.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon* / adverse effects
  • Carotid Arteries* / diagnostic imaging
  • Carotid Stenosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Carotid Stenosis / therapy*
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Radiography
  • Recurrence
  • Stents* / adverse effects
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex