Over the past 50 years, a variety of techniques have been developed that have in common the insufflation of gas into the central airway to facilitate carbon dioxide (CO2) clearance. These include continuous insufflation of oxygen, transtracheal jet ventilation, high frequency jet ventilation, transtracheal oxygen administration, intratracheal pulmonary ventilation, and tracheal gas insufflation (TGI). Continuous insufflation of oxygen is a technique used to enhance CO2 removal in the presence of apnea. Transtracheal jet ventilation and high frequency jet ventilation promote bulk gas flow into the lungs. Some techniques, such as transtracheal oxygen administration, provide insufflation of oxygen as an adjunct to spontaneous ventilation. However, other techniques, such as TGI, are used as an adjunct to positive pressure ventilation. Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation provides positive pressure ventilation while bypassing the upper airway. Although some of these techniques are promising adjuncts to mechanical ventilation and may help reduce ventilator-associated lung injury, much remains to be learned about their role in the care of patients with acute lung injury.