NFkappaB activation, TNF-alpha expression, and apoptosis in the AIDS-Dementia-Complex

J Neurovirol. 2000 Dec;6(6):537-43. doi: 10.3109/13550280009091954.


The role of NFkappaB activation and its relationship to inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in the HIV-infected brain have remained uncertain. The cellular and regional distribution of NFkappaB, TNF-alpha, and apoptosis was examined in the frontal cortex (FC), deep white matter (DWM) and the basal ganglia (BG) of 17 patients with ADC. Nuclear staining for NFkappaB was localized predominantly to perivascular microglia/macrophages in the BG and DWM and correlated with ADC severity. Correlations were further found with HLA-DR, iNOS, TNF-alpha, and gp41 expression in these regions. The number of TUNEL-positive cells, particularly in the BG, correlated with ADC stage. Logistic regression analysis further showed a significant relationship between the likelihood of TUNEL staining in the BG and worsening cognitive impairment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex / genetics
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / metabolism*
  • Apoptosis*
  • Basal Ganglia / metabolism
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Cognition
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Frontal Lobe / metabolism
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / biosynthesis
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / genetics
  • HLA-DR Antigens / biosynthesis
  • HLA-DR Antigens / genetics
  • Humans
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / physiology*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Regression Analysis
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics


  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • NF-kappa B
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • NOS2 protein, human
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II