Chemokines play well established roles as attractants of naïve and effector T cells. New studies indicate that chemokines also have roles in regulating T cell differentiation. Blocking Gi protein-coupled receptor signaling by pertussis toxin as well as deficiencies in G alpha 12, chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), CCR5, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, or MCP-1), CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, or MIP-1 alpha) and CCL5 (RANTES) have all been found to have effects on the magnitude and cytokine polarity of the T cell response. Here we focus on findings in the CCL2-CCR2 and CCL3-CCR5 ligand-receptor systems. The roles of these molecules in regulating T cell fate include possible indirect effects on antigen-presenting cells and direct effects on differentiating T cells. Models to account for the action of chemokines and G protein-coupled receptor signals in regulating T cell differentiation are discussed.