Several inhibitors of angiogenesis are being developed for the treatment of cancer. One dominant strategy involves disruption of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway by inhibition of the receptors for VEGF. Inhibition of the VEGF receptor activity can be accomplished using catalytic RNA molecules known as ribozymes, which downregulate VEGF receptor function by specifically cleaving the mRNAs for the primary VEGF receptors, Flt-1 and KDR. Significant inhibition of angiogenesis using ribozymes against both receptors has been demonstrated. In animal tumor models, antitumor effects are most pronounced with the anti-Flt-1 ribozyme known as Angiozyme (Ribozyme Pharmaceuticals, Boulder, CO). Extensive preclinical studies have demonstrated no significant toxicities. Clinical trials of Angiozyme are currently in progress for patients with advanced malignancy. Preliminary results demonstrate Angiozyme to be well tolerated, without significant side effects. Several phase II trials are underway for patients with advanced malignancy to test therapeutic efficacy.