A major obstacle to the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients allergic to allopurinol is the limited availability of suitable, equally effective, alternative, urate-lowering drugs. Conventional uricosuric drugs, including probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, are recommended for allopurinol- intolerant patients with gout and "underexcretion" hyperuricemia who have normal renal function and no history of nephrolithiasis. Therapeutic options in those in whom traditional uricosuric drugs are contraindicated, ineffective, or poorly tolerated include slow oral desensitization to allopurinol and cautious administration of oxipurinol. Allopurinol desensitization is useful particularly in those who have failed other treatment modalities. If available (as in Europe, South Africa, and Japan), benzbromarone may be tried in patients with gout and mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency. Recombinant urate oxidase can be used in the short-term prophylaxis and treatment of chemotherapy- associated hyperuricemia in patients with lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders. Hyperuricemia and gout occur with increased frequency in cyclosporine-treated allograft transplant recipients. The management of gout in these patients is complicated by two main factors: cyclosporine-induced renal impairment, and interactions with medications used to preserve the allograft.