Loss of nm23 expression predicts distal metastases and poorer survival for breast cancer

Int J Oncol. 2001 Mar;18(3):587-91. doi: 10.3892/ijo.18.3.587.


The nm23 gene, originally identified by differential hybridization of metastatic murine melanoma cell lines has been associated with decreased metastatic potential. In this study, we evaluated the utility of nm23 expression levels as a predictive and a prognostic biomarker for distal metastases and poor survival in a Chinese cohort of 168 breast cancer patients. Our study indicates that high nm23 expression is associated with older age (older than 35 years) and smaller tumor size. There is no statistically significant association between nm23 expression and pathologic type or axillary metastasis. High nm23 expression is associated with the absence of distal metastases. Nearly 80% of women with high nm23 expression are alive after 10 years compared to 25% with low expression; at five years the cumulative survival proportions are 86% and 46%, respectively. The Cox model for survival indicates that controlling for tumor size and presence of axillary metastases at diagnosis, the hazard for women with low nm23 expression is nearly 4 times that of women with high nm23 expression. Low nm23 expression is predictive of distal metastases and appears to be a risk factor that is independent of the presence or absence of positive axillary nodes at diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / mortality
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Middle Aged
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis*
  • Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase*
  • Prognosis
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Survival Rate
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transcription Factors
  • NME1 protein, human
  • Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins