Cytoplasmic signaling pathways that regulate cardiac hypertrophy

Annu Rev Physiol. 2001;63:391-426. doi: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.391.


This review discusses the rapidly progressing field of cardiomyocyte signal transduction and the regulation of the hypertrophic response. When stimulated by a wide array of neurohumoral factors or when faced with an increase in ventricular-wall tension, individual cardiomyocytes undergo hypertrophic growth as an adaptive response. However, sustained cardiac hypertrophy is a leading predictor of future heart failure. A growing number of intracellular signaling pathways have been characterized as important transducers of the hypertrophic response, including specific G protein isoforms, low-molecular-weight GTPases (Ras, RhoA, and Rac), mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, protein kinase C, calcineurin, gp130-signal transducer and activator of transcription, insulin-like growth factor I receptor pathway, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta receptor pathways, and many others. Each of these signaling pathways has been implicated as a hypertrophic transducer, which collectively suggests an emerging paradigm whereby multiple pathways operate in concert to orchestrate a hypertrophic response

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiomegaly / metabolism*
  • Cardiomegaly / physiopathology*
  • Cytoplasm / physiology
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*