One of the proposed mechanisms for resistance to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection is the presence of antibodies against receptor for CC-chemokines (CCR5). These antibodies, detected in sera of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV, have been shown to downmodulate surface CCR5 in vivo and are able to neutralize the infectivity of CCR5 strains in vitro. To address the potential role of anti-CCR5 antibodies in HIV infection, we analyzed anti-CCR5 antibody levels in plasma from HIV-infected patients who present a wide range of CD4(+) T-cell counts and viral load. Increased levels of anti-CCR5 antibodies were found in plasma from 13/46 HIV-positive donors compared with healthy controls (0/36). However, antibody levels were not associated with disease stage evaluated by CD4(+) T-cell counts and viral load.