The roles of co-transmission in neural network modulation

Trends Neurosci. 2001 Mar;24(3):146-54. doi: 10.1016/s0166-2236(00)01723-9.


Neuromodulation provides considerable flexibility to the output of neural networks. In spite of the extensive literature documenting the presence of modulatory peptide co-transmitters in many neurons, considerably less is known about the specific roles of co-transmission in circuit function. This review describes some of the potential consequences of peptide co-transmission in functional circuits, using specific examples from recent work on the actions of identified peptidergic projection neurons acting on the multifunctional neural network within the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion. This system reveals that co-transmission provides projection neurons with a rich assortment of strategies for eliciting multiple outputs from a multifunctional network.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Crustacea / physiology
  • Digestive System / innervation
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / physiology*
  • Models, Neurological
  • Nerve Net / physiology*
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / physiology*
  • Synaptic Transmission / physiology*


  • Neurotransmitter Agents