The mechanism of action of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents is mainly thought to be due to a direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. The enhanced endothelial cell proliferation rate in tumor specimens raised the question whether therapeutic effects of chemotherapeutic agents might be at least partially attributed to an inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Meanwhile, numerous anticancer chemotherapeutic agents were tested for their antiangiogenic potential. A few agents seem to exert consistent inhibition of tumor angiogenesis even in drug-resistant tumors. Most recent investigations on the antiangiogenic efficacy of different application schedules suggested the use of a tightly spaced, continuous application of appropriate anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. These application schedules are able to exert a strong antiangiogenic effect as indicated by an increase of apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells. Future clinical trials have to determine the therapeutic benefit of novel combination chemotherapy and alternative application schedules.