Sedation in outpatient bronchoscopy

Respir Med. 2000 Dec;94(12):1145-53. doi: 10.1053/rmed.2000.0926.


Bronchoscopy is a procedure that is likely to provoke anxiety as the patient is surrounded by monitoring and bronchoscopy equipment, and care is administered by strangers who perform intimate, invasive, and sometimes, painful procedures. Sedation is needed, therefore, to allay anxiety and reduce stress, improve patient comfort and co-operation, provide amnesia and facilitate the bronchoscopic procedure. In this review we try to summarize the current knowledge on currently used sedation protocols with special reference to the commonly used pharmacological agents. We believe sedation should be used routinely in fiberoptic bronchoscopy in order to achieve a safe and pleasant procedure for both the patient and the pulmonologist.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use
  • Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Bronchoscopy / methods*
  • Cholinergic Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Conscious Sedation*
  • Humans
  • Narcotic Antagonists / therapeutic use


  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Cholinergic Antagonists
  • Narcotic Antagonists
  • Benzodiazepines