beta-catenin expression pattern in primary oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Relationship with clinicopathologic features and clinical outcome

Virchows Arch. 2000 Dec;437(6):599-604. doi: 10.1007/s004280000266.


beta-Catenin has an essential role in intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. beta-catenin functions as a transcriptional activator downstream in the Wnt signalling pathway. Cytoplasmic stabilisation of beta-catenin, mainly due to inactivating mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene or activating mutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene, can activate this important pathway in the development of several carcinomas. To determine whether this pathway for malignant transformation is important in oesophageal cancer, we analysed 39 primary oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin was studied in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and immunohistochemical expression of the proteins p53, E-cadherin, bcl-2 and Ki-67. All examined OSCC had beta-catenin expression localised in the cellular membrane, frequently with a heterogeneous pattern. Seven (18%) cases also showed immunoexpression in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the tumour cells. These seven tumours were localised in the upper (three) or in the middle third (four) of the oesophagus. Only one patient had p53 expression and all had bcl-2 expression. The consensus sequence for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3beta phosphorylation in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene was studied using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in the seven cases with nuclear beta-catenin expression. No genetic alteration was found. These results suggest that beta-catenin expression may characterise a subset of OSCC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / analysis
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes / metabolism
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / chemistry
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Exons
  • Gene Expression*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • Mutation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis
  • Trans-Activators*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • beta Catenin


  • CTNNB1 protein, human
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Trans-Activators
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • beta Catenin
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes