Protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) is activated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and is a central mediator of cellular proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) act as glucose-dependent growth factors for pancreatic beta-cells. We assessed signaling pathways and stimulation patterns of PKB/Akt activation by these ligands in the beta-cell line INS-1. Insulin, IGF-1, and GLP-1 induced distinctive time dependent, dose dependent, and glucose dependent phosphorylation of PKB/Akt. Insulin and IGF-1 stimulated PI 3-K activity was mainly associated with insulin receptor substrate (IRS) isoforms IRS-1 and IRS-2 and less so with the IRS-isoform Grb-2 associated binder-1 (Gab-1). In contrast, GLP-1 induced PI 3-K activity mainly in Gab-1 and also in IRS-2 immunoprecipitates, although in an attenuated kinetic. Thus, activation pathways of PKB/Akt by insulin, IGF-1, and GLP-1 converge at the level of IRS-isoforms and PI 3-K inducing differential activation of PKB/Akt. These data indicate an essential role of PKB/Akt in regulation of beta-cell proliferation.