The goal of this study was 3-month clinical outcome in nonanticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) following a negative spiral CT. During a 6-month period 305 patients underwent spiral CT, of whom only 8 also had a lung scintigraphy. In patients with a final CT report read as not positive for acute PE, all hospital records and answers to a patient questionnaire were analyzed for episodes of venous thrombembolism (VTE). Acute PE was diagnosed at spiral CT in 61 patients (20%). Twenty-six of the remaining 244 patients were excluded from further analysis because of (a) long-term anticoagulation due to symptomatic acute deep venous thrombosis (n = 5), clinically diagnosed acute PE (n = 2), chronic recurrent VTE (n = 4), and cardiac disorders (n = 5); and (b) a normal perfusion scintigram (n = 4) or a negative pulmonary arteriogram (n = 6). Three patients were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 215 patients only 10 had undergone a negative lower extremity venous study. Sixteen patients (7%) died during the follow-up period, 6 of whom underwent autopsy. Venous thrombembolism was diagnosed in three of the 215 patients (1.4%, 95% confidence limits: 0.5-4.0%), one causing the patient's death. Two patients had advanced thoracic malignancies and the third severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (84 years old). A negative spiral CT may be able to exclude clinically significant acute PE with the same accuracy as a normal lung scintigraphy or a negative pulmonary arteriography.