Maize chromosome addition lines of oat offer the opportunity to study maize gene expression in oat and the resulting phenotypes. Morphological examination of a maize chromosome 3 addition line of oat showed that this line exhibited several morphological abnormalities including a blade-to-sheath transformation at the midrib region of the leaf, a hook-shaped panicle, and abnormal outgrowth of aerial axillary buds. Dominant mutations in the maize liguleless3 (lg3) homeobox gene result in a blade (distal)-to-sheath (proximal) transformation at the midrib region of the leaf. Ectopic expression of the dominant mutant Lg3 allele is believed to cause the phenotype. Therefore, we suspected that the maize lg3 gene, which is located on maize chromosome 3, was involved in the phenotypes observed in the maize chromosome 3 addition line of oat. Genetic analyses of an oat BC1F2 family segregating for maize chromosome 3 showed that the presence of a stable maize chromosome 3 was required for the expression of these cell fate abnormalities. RNA expression analysis of leaf sheath tissue from oat plants carrying maize chromosome 3 demonstrated that maize LG3 transcripts accumulated in oat, indicating that this expression is associated with the blade-to-sheath transformation, hook-shaped panicle and outgrowth of aerial axillary bud phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that the maize chromosome addition lines of oat are useful genetic stocks to study expression of maize genes in oat.