Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pivotal immunoregulatory cytokine, influencing many aspects of the immune response. The IL-10 gene is located on chromosome 1 at 1q31-32 and is highly polymorphic. One microsatellite and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been recorded within the 1.2 kb immediately upstream of the gene, with an additional microsatellite present at 4 kb upstream. The relationship between these two classes of polymorphism is poorly defined in the IL-10 gene. Haplotypes have been presented comprising alleles from the two microsatellite loci, and independently from the three SNPs, but these have not yet been brought together to define unified halpotypes. In the present report we describe the 29 IL-10 haplotypes found in 56 Dutch European families and show that they fall into four major haplotype groups, each of which spans the 4 kb upstream of the IL-10 gene and has a different distribution of IL10.G alleles. In addition, we describe three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human IL-10 gene and suggest how they relate to these four haplotype families.