OsMADS1 is a MADS box gene controlling flower development in rice. In order to learn more about the function of OsMADS1, we searched for cellular proteins interacting with OsMADS1 employing the yeast two-hybrid system. Two novel proteins with MADS domains, which were named OsMADS14 and OsMADS15, were isolated from a rice cDNA library. OsMADS14 and -15 are highly homologous to the maize MADS box gene ZAP1 which is an orthologue of the floral homeotic gene APETALA1 (AP1). Interactions among the three MADS domain proteins were confirmed by in vitro experiments using GST-fused OsMADS1 expressed in Escherichia coli and in vitro translated proteins of OsMADS14 and -15. We determined which domains in OsMADS1, -14, and -15 were required for protein-protein interaction employing the two-hybrid system and pull-down experiments. While the K domain was essential for protein-protein interaction, a region preceded by the K domain augmented this interaction. Interestingly, the C-terminal region of OsMADS1 functioned as a transcriptional activation domain in yeast and mammalian cells, while, on the other hand, the C domains of OsMADS14 and -15 exhibited only very weak transcriptional activator functionality, if any at all.