In this study, the synthesis of some new 2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines and their condensed derivatives, thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidines, are described. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by 1R, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The direct high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the compounds on derivatized cellulose chiral stationary phases such as cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (OD), cellulose tris(4-methylphenylcarbamate) (OG), and cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (OJ) was studied. All of the compounds were screened for their antiinflammatory activity and also investigated histopathologically. Compounds 3 and 1a were found to be the most promising antiinflammatory agents in this group.