Emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: epidemiological evidence

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13 Suppl 6:1395-402. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2000-s613.

Abstract

There have been numerous recent reports of case series of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in American Indian, African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American and white children from North America. A similar phenomenon has also been described in several other countries. Prevalence and incidence estimates vary depending on the age and ethnicity of the population, but it is estimated that type 2 DM represents 8-45% of patients with DM currently diagnosed in large US pediatric centers; however, this is likely to be an underestimation and incidence is probably rising. The young patients diagnosed with type 2 DM in the USA were generally overweight, had a strong family history of type 2 DM and often had signs of insulin resistance. The majority belonged to ethnic groups at high risk for type 2 DM. More girls than boys were diagnosed. The few data on follow-up available suggest a high prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications among young adults who developed type 2 DM during childhood. Type 2 DM in children has recently been recognized as a potential public health problem in North America. As obesity is currently on the increase in several industrialized or industrializing countries, a similar increase in type 2 DM in children may soon emerge worldwide, and this will require preventative measures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology