An enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) has been recently shown to promote periodontal regeneration in experimentally created recession-type defects. However, only limited histologic data from human material are available concerning the healing of intrabony periodontal defects following treatment with Emdogain. The aim of the present study was therefore to present the clinical and histologic results following the application of Emdogain in intrabony defects. Two patients with marginal periodontitis and deep intrabony defects adjacent to teeth scheduled for extraction were treated with Emdogain. The postoperative healing phase was uneventful in both cases. At 6 months following treatment, newly formed cementum with inserting collagen fibers was found in both specimens. In one case, the new attachment formation was also accompanied by bone neoformation. The results of this human histologic study indicate that Emdogain possesses the potential to stimulate new connective tissue attachment formation in human intrabony defects.