Apicomplexa constitute one of the largest phyla of protozoa. Most Apicomplexa, including those pathogenic to humans, are obligate intracellular parasites. Their extracellular forms, which are highly polarized and elongated cells, share two unique abilities: they glide on solid substrates without changing their shape and reach an intracellular compartment without active participation from the host cell. There is now ample ultrastructural evidence that these processes result from the backward movement of extracellular interactions along the anteroposterior axis of the parasite. Recent work in several Apicomplexa, including genetic studies in the Plasmodium sporozoite, has provided molecular support for this 'capping' model. It appears that the same machinery drives both gliding motility and host cell invasion. The cytoplasmic motor, a transmembrane bridge and surface ligands essential for cell invasion are conserved among the main apicomplexan pathogens.