The new millennium coincides within 1 year of Camillo Golgi's centennial celebrations. It is quite remarkable that the structure and formation of this organelle is as controversial today as was its mere existence from Golgi's time to the 1950s, when EM approaches were introduced. Since the late 1950s, two opposing models of Golgi structure and function have split the Golgi scientific community, namely vesicular transport versus organelle maturation. Although a few years ago Golgi maturation seemed to be 'out for the count', it has recently seen an almost messianic revival. In this review, I argue that this large-scale desertion from the vesicle transport model to the maturation camp is premature. I propose an alternative, dynamic steady-state model, in which transient tubular connections function in parallel to vesicular transport and that the biosynthetic pathway is made up of three major distinct compartments: the ER, the Golgi and the TGN.