Transgenic monkeys produced by retroviral gene transfer into mature oocytes

Science. 2001 Jan 12;291(5502):309-12. doi: 10.1126/science.291.5502.309.


Transgenic rhesus monkeys carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were produced by injecting pseudotyped replication-defective retroviral vector into the perivitelline space of 224 mature rhesus oocytes, later fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Of the three males born from 20 embryo transfers, one was transgenic when accessible tissues were assayed for transgene DNA and messenger RNA. All tissues that were studied from a fraternal set of twins, miscarried at 73 days, carried the transgene, as confirmed by Southern analyses, and the GFP transgene reporter was detected by both direct and indirect fluorescence imaging.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified*
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Transfer Techniques*
  • Gene Transfer, Horizontal*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics*
  • Macaca mulatta / genetics*
  • Male
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus / genetics
  • Oocytes
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
  • Transgenes


  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins