We assessed the association between pseudoexfoliation syndrome, a common age-related fibrillopathy of unknown cause, and vascular diseases, especially aneurysms of the abdominal aorta. In a prospective single-blind study we ophthalmoscopically examined 55 patients with aneurysms of the abdominal aorta and 41 controls with carotic-artery occlusion. 24 of 55 patients with aortic aneurysm showed signs of manifest (17 of 55 patients) or early-stage (seven of 55) pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Eight of 41 control patients showed manifest (seven of 41 patients) and early (one of 41) ocular pseudoexfoliation (p=0.016). These findings, including histopathological examinations, suggest an association between aneurysms of the abdominal aorta and pseudoexfoliation syndrome.