Although it may begin at any point, sleep disturbance often appears early in HIV disease and contributes to decreased quality of life during the course of the illness. Relatively few studies have explored the complex nature of poor sleep quality in HIV disease or tested interventions to improve sleep quality. The purpose of this study was threefold: explore the nature of sleep quality in HIV disease, test the relationship between pain and sleep quality, and test the effectiveness of acupuncture delivered in a group setting for improving sleep quality in those who are HIV infected. A pretest, posttest, preexperimental design was used to test the effects of acupuncture on sleep quality. Participating in the study were 21 HIV-infected men and women between the ages of 29 and 50 years who reported sleep disturbance three or more times per week and who scored greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wrist Actigraph was used to measure sleep activity, and the Current Sleep Quality Index was used to measure sleep quality for 2 nights before and after a 5-week acupuncture intervention (10 treatments). Acupuncture was individualized to address insomnia and other symptoms reported by the participants. Sleep activity and sleep quality significantly improved following 5 weeks of individualized acupuncture delivered in a group setting.