A long-term seal- and cod-liver-oil supplementation in hypercholesterolemic subjects

Lipids. 2001 Jan;36(1):7-13. doi: 10.1007/s11745-001-0661-4.


In this long-term study, we wanted to explore the effect of dietary supplementation of seal oil (SO) as compared cod-liver oil (CLO) on subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia. The test parameters included fatty acid composition in serum, blood lipids, platelet aggregation, and the activity of blood monocytes. After a run-in period of 6 mon, 120 clinically healthy hypercholesterolemic (7.0-9.5 mmol/L; 270-366 mg/dL) subjects were randomly selected to consume either 15 mL of SO or CLO daily for 14 mon followed by a 4-mon wash-out period. A third group was not given any dietary supplement (control). Consumption of marine oils (SO and CLO) changed the fatty acid composition of serum significantly. Maximal levels were achieved after 10 mon. No further changes were seen after 14 mon. A wash-out period of 4 mon hardly altered the level of n-3 fatty acids in serum. Addition of SO gave 30% higher level of eicosapentaenoic acid, as compared to CLO. Subjects taking SO or CLO had lower whole-blood platelet aggregation than the control group. Neither SO nor CLO had any effects on the levels of serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoproteins Al and B100, lipoprotein (a), monocyte function expressed as monocyte-derived tissue factor expression, and tumor necrosis factor.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Apolipoproteins / blood
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cod Liver Oil / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid / blood
  • Fatty Acids / blood
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / blood*
  • Hypercholesterolemia / therapy*
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway
  • Platelet Aggregation
  • Seals, Earless*
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Apolipoproteins
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Triglycerides
  • Cod Liver Oil
  • Cholesterol
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid