Factors Influencing the International Spread of Equine Diseases

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2000 Dec;16(3):537-51, x. doi: 10.1016/s0749-0739(17)30094-9.


In an era of increasing globalization, the risk of spread of infectious diseases in humans and animals, including equids, has never been greater. International movement of equids and trade in semen are the most important factors responsible for the dissemination of various equine pathogens. Other factors that can or do have the potential to influence the global distribution of equine infectious diseases include: multinational trade agreements, emergent diseases, mutation of pathogens, climate related phenomena, migration of amplifying/reservoir hosts or vectors, availability of new vectors, vaccine contamination and agroterrorism. The relative importance of each of these factors is considered in relation to the spread of equine diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animal Husbandry
  • Animals
  • Breeding
  • Commerce
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / epidemiology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / transmission
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / veterinary*
  • Disease Vectors*
  • Horse Diseases / epidemiology
  • Horse Diseases / transmission*
  • Horses
  • International Cooperation*
  • Risk Factors
  • Semen