Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) has been shown to be an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) of organic aetiology. This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of sildenafil for treating ED of psychogenic and mixed psychogenic/organic aetiology. Men with ED of psychogenic and mixed aetiology were randomised in a double-blind, fixed-dose study to placebo (n = 95) or sildenafil 10 mg (n = 90), 25 mg (n = 85), or 50 mg (n = 81) once daily for 28 days. Efficacy was evaluated with two global efficacy questions, a patient log of erectile activity, a sexual function questionnaire and a partner questionnaire. Patients receiving sildenafil had significantly more grade 3 (hard enough for penetration) or grade 4 (fully hard) erections per week than patients receiving placebo, and a greater proportion of patients receiving sildenafil reported that treatment had improved their erections (p < 0.001). Results of the sexual function questionnaire demonstrated significant improvement for patients with ED receiving sildenafil compared with patients receiving placebo for frequency, hardness and duration of erections (p < 0.01), and for enjoyment of sexual intercourse and satisfaction with sex life (p < 0.05). The results of the partner questionnaire were consistent with the results reported by patients and showed that treatment with sildenafil was associated with significant improvement in the partners' own sex lives (p < 0.001). Adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in nature. The commonest adverse events were headache, dyspepsia, flushing, myalgia, arthralgia and flu syndrome. Discontinuations due to treatment-related adverse events were few, ranging from 1.1% to 6.2% for patients receiving different doses of sildenafil and 4.2% for patients receiving placebo. Sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED of psychogenic or mixed aetiology with once-daily dosing.