Colonoscopy is an integral part of the clinician armamentarium in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and its precursor, the adenoma. Polypoid lesions when identified can be excised at colonoscopy and in turn reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. We prospectively evaluated the yield of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps by indication for colonoscopy over a one-year period. A total of 375 colonoscopies were carried out. The more common indications of colonoscopy were rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, surveillance of colorectal cancer and altered bowel habit. The highest yield for cancer was for rectal bleeding with 12.5% while surveillance of patients with a history of polyps yielded the highest percentage of new polyps. We conclude that rectal bleeding as an indication for colonoscopy yielded the highest number of cancers.