Noninvasive monitoring of citrate, acetate, lactate, and renal medullary osmolyte excretion in urine as biomarkers of exposure to ischemic reperfusion injury

Cryobiology. 2000 Dec;41(4):280-91. doi: 10.1006/cryo.2000.2291.


Injury during the transplant process affects the alloantigen-dependent factors and the alloantigen-independent processes of "chronic" rejection. Consequently, the determination of reliable parameters for the assessment of ischemic damage is essential for the prediction of renal changes after ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of (1)H NMR spectroscopy to predict the early graft dysfunction in an ischemia/reperfusion model after preservation in two standard preservation solutions, Euro-Collins (EC) and University of Wisconsin (UW). The second aim was to specify the role of the UW solution in preventing renal medullary injury. Urine and plasma samples from three experimental groups were examined during 2 weeks: control group (n = 5), EC group (cold flushed and 48-h cold storage of kidney in EC and autotransplantation, n = 12), and UW group (cold flushed and 48-h cold storage of kidney in UW and autotransplantation; n = 12). We also examined these kidneys 30-40 min after implantation and on the sacrifice day. Creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in the EC group during the second week. Fractional excretion of sodium and urine N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity were improved but not significantly different in the preserved groups. Urinary concentrations of the alpha-class glutathione S-transferase were significantly greater in the EC group during the first week after transplantation. The most relevant resonances for evaluating renal function after transplantation determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were those arising from citrate, dimethylamine (DMA), lactate, and acetate in urine and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in urine and plasma. These findings suggest that graft dysfunction is associated with damage to the renal medulla determined by TMAO release in urine and plasma associated with DMA and acetate excretion. Citrate is also a urinary marker that can discriminate kidneys with a favorable evolution. Our results suggest that (1)H NMR spectroscopy is an efficient technique for detecting ischemic damage when accurate and precise data on graft injury is required. In addition, this study outlines the specific impact of the UW solution against injury to the renal medulla.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / urine*
  • Acetylglucosaminidase / urine
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / urine
  • Adenosine
  • Allopurinol
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Citric Acid / urine*
  • Cold Temperature
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Dimethylamines / urine
  • Glutathione
  • Glutathione Transferase / urine
  • Hypertonic Solutions
  • Insulin
  • Isoenzymes / urine
  • Kidney / blood supply
  • Kidney / injuries*
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Kidney Medulla / metabolism
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Lactic Acid / urine*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Methylamines / blood
  • Methylamines / urine
  • Organ Preservation
  • Organ Preservation Solutions*
  • Raffinose
  • Reperfusion Injury / complications
  • Reperfusion Injury / urine*
  • Swine
  • Transplantation, Autologous


  • Biomarkers
  • Dimethylamines
  • Euro-Collins' solution
  • Hypertonic Solutions
  • Insulin
  • Isoenzymes
  • Methylamines
  • Organ Preservation Solutions
  • University of Wisconsin-lactobionate solution
  • Citric Acid
  • Lactic Acid
  • Allopurinol
  • dimethylamine
  • Creatinine
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • glutathione S-transferase alpha
  • Acetylglucosaminidase
  • trimethyloxamine
  • Glutathione
  • Adenosine
  • Raffinose
  • Acetic Acid