By focusing a pulsed laser beam into a sample, harmonic up-conversion can be generated as well as multi-photon excited fluorescence. Whereas multi-photon excited fluorescence microscopy is well established, the use of multi-harmonic generation for three-dimensional image contrast is very recent. Both techniques can provide similar resolution and, for adequate radiating source density, comparable signal levels, allowing them to be combined in a single versatile instrument. However, harmonic generation differs fundamentally from fluorescence generation in that it is coherent and produces radiation patterns that are highly sensitive to phase. As such, multi-harmonic generation microscopy provides a unique window into molecular spatial organization that is inaccessible to fluorescence.