Intravascular and intracardiac stents used in congenital heart disease

Curr Opin Cardiol. 2001 Mar;16(2):84-91. doi: 10.1097/00001573-200103000-00002.


Intravascular or intracardiac stenoses occur in many forms of congenital heart disease or after attempted surgical repair. Although balloon dilation is one option for management, restenosis can occur due to elastic recoil immediately after the procedure. To address to such stenotic lesions, many reports support implanting endovascular stents to provide a framework for vessel expansion. Both balloon-expandable fixed tubular mesh stainless steel devices, and self-expandable stents have had an extensive clinical application. In pediatric patients, stents are used for a variety of stenoses, such as systemic venous obstruction pathways (eg, Mustard, Fontan baffle, or bidirectional cavopulmonary connections), pulmonary artery, right ventricular to pulmonary conduits, aortic coarctation, the arterial duct, aorticopulmonary collaterals, or postoperative systemic to pulmonary shunts. Because of improvements in device profile, implantation rates have increased. Complications such as stent fracture, migration, aneurysm formation, and in-stent restenosis occur but only rarely. This latter event may be because of intimal hyperplasia and/or continued vessel (and patient) growth related to the stent diameter. As such, some instances require redilation to manage the acquired lesion. Stent application has importantly altered management algorithms in congenital heart disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aortic Coarctation / surgery
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coronary Disease / surgery
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / surgery
  • Equipment Design
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / complications
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Pulmonary Artery / abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Artery / surgery
  • Recurrence
  • Stents* / adverse effects