Patients with chronic renal disease suffer from a secondary form of complex dyslipidemia. The most important abnormalities are an increase in serum triglyceride levels (elevated VLDL-remnants/IDL), small LDL particles and a low HDL cholesterol level. The highly atherogenic LDL subclass, namely LDL-6 or small dense LDL, accumulates preferentially in hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients with nephropathy or on hemodialysis treatment. All these lipoprotein particles contain apolipoprotein B, thus the complex disorder can be summarized as an elevation of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-containing complex lipoprotein particles. Growing evidence suggests that all of the components of this type of dyslipidemia are independently atherogenic. These particles, specifically the apolipoprotein B moiety, are predominantly prone to modification such as oxidation and glycosilation, which contributes to impaired clearance by the LDL receptor. These complex alterations in lipoprotein composition not only passively accompany chronic renal disease but on the contrary also promote its progression and the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, renal patients with dyslipidemia should be subjected to lipid-lowering therapy. The effectiveness of lipid lowering on the reduction of cardiovascular endpoints or the progression of renal disease is under investigation or remains to be studied.