Aim: To identify the metastasis suppressor genes for prostate cancer.
Methods: A copy of human chromosomes was introduced into the highly metastatic Dunning R-3327 rat prostate cancer cells by the use of microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Relationships between the size of human chromosomes introduced into microcell hybrid clones and the number of lung metastases produced by the clones were analyzed to determine which part of human chromosomes contained the metastasis suppressor gene(s) for prostate cancer. To determine portions of human chromosomes introduced, G-banding chromosomal analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed.
Results: Each of microcell hybrid clones containing human chromosomes 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, or 17 showed decreased ability to metastasize to the lung without any loss of tumorigenicity. This demonstrates that these human chromosomes contain metastasis suppressor genes for prostate cancer. Spontaneous deletion of portions of human chromosomes was observed in the human chromosome 7, 10, 11, 12, and 17 studies. In the human chromosome 8 study, irradiated microcell-mediated chromosome transfer was performed to enrich chromosomal arm deletions of human chromosome 8. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses of microcell hybrid clones demonstrated that metastasis suppressor genes on human chromosomes were located on 7q21-22, 7q31.2-32, 8p21-12, 10q11-22, 11p13-11.2, 12p11-q13, 12q24-ter, and 17pter-q23. KAI1 and MKK4/SEKI were identified as metastasis suppressor genes from 11p11.2 and 17p12, respectively.
Conclusion: This assay system is useful to identify metastasis suppressor gene (s) for prostate cancer.