We evaluated real-time (kinetic) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to validate differentially expressed genes identified by DNA arrays. Gene expression of two keratinocyte subclones differing in the physical state of human papillomavirus (episomal or integrated) was used as a model system. High-density filter arrays identified 444 of 588 genes as either negative or expressed with less than twofold difference, and the other 144 genes as expressed uniquely or with more than twofold difference between the two subclones. Real-time RT-PCR used LightCycler-based SYBR Green I dye detection and melting curve analysis to validate the relative change in gene expression. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed the change in expression of 17 of 24 (71%) genes identified by high-density filter arrays. Genes with strong hybridization signals and at least twofold difference were likely to be validated by real-time RT-PCR. This data suggests that (i) both hybridization intensity and the level of differential expression determine the likelihood of validating high-density filter array results and (ii) genes identified by DNA arrays with a two- to fourfold difference in expression cannot be eliminated as false nor be accepted as true without validation. Real-time RT-PCR based on LightCycler technology is well-suited to validate DNA array results because it is quantitative, rapid, and requires 1000-fold less RNA than conventional assays.