Background: Patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are dependent on residual renal function for solute and water clearances, and this declines with time on dialysis. Loop diuretics have been postulated to slow this decline.
Methods: Sixty-one patients new to dialysis were randomly assigned to either furosemide 250 mg every day or no furosemide at the time of CAPD training and were followed prospectively. Urine volume (UV), urea clearance (C(Urea)), and creatinine clearance on cimetidine (C(Cr)) were measured at randomization at six months and at one year. Patients underwent a standard four-hour peritoneum equilibrium test, and total body water was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Results were expressed on an intention-to-treat basis.
Results: UV, C(Cr), and C(Urea) were similar at randomization (1020 +/- 104 vs. 1040 +/- 130 mL/24 hours, 4.95 +/- 0.51 vs. 4.07 +/- 0.40 mL/min/1.73 m2, 0.91 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.08, diuretic vs. control). UV in the diuretic-treated group increased, whereas in the control group, it declined (+176 vs. -200 mL/24 hours at 6 months and +48.8 vs. -305 mL/24 hours at 1 year, P < 0.05). C(Cr) and C(Urea) declined at a constant rate and were unaffected by diuretic administration (0.12 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.071 +/- 0.04 mL/min/1.73 m2/month, 0.020 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.019 +/- 0.01 per month). Urinary sodium excretion increased in the diuretic group and declined in the control group (+0.72 +/- 0.85 vs. -2.56 +/- 1.31 mmol/24 hours/month, P = 0.04). Body weight rose in both groups (4.3 vs. 3.0 kg), but the percentage of total body weight rose in the control group and remained constant in the diuretic group (52 +/- 2.4 vs. 64 +/- 6.6%, P = 0.10).
Conclusions: Long-term furosemide produces a significant increase in UV over 12 months when on CAPD and may result in clinically significant improvement in fluid balance. However, furosemide has no effect on preserving residual renal function.