Oxygen-regulated protein 150 kD (ORP150) is a novel endoplasmic-reticulum-associated chaperone induced by hypoxia/ischemia. Although ORP150 was sparingly upregulated in neurons from human brain undergoing ischemic stress, there was robust induction in astrocytes. Cultured neurons overexpressing ORP150 were resistant to hypoxemic stress, whereas astrocytes with inhibited ORP150 expression were more vulnerable. Mice with targeted neuronal overexpression of ORP150 had smaller strokes compared with controls. Neurons with increased ORP150 demonstrated suppressed caspase-3-like activity and enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under hypoxia signaling. These data indicate that ORP150 is an integral participant in ischemic cytoprotective pathways.