Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome)

Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Apr;68(4):1030-5. doi: 10.1086/319511. Epub 2001 Feb 23.


Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a trilogy of symptoms (nasal polyps, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus totalis) that is associated with ultrastructural anomalies of cilia of epithelial cells covering the upper and lower respiratory tracts and spermatozoa flagellae. The axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene 1 (DNAI1), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for a case of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) without situs inversus, was screened for mutation in a series of 34 patients with KS. We identified compound heterozygous DNAI1 gene defects in three independent patients and in two of their siblings who presented with PCD and situs solitus (i.e., normal position of inner organs). Strikingly, these five patients share one mutant allele (splice defect), which is identical to one of the mutant DNAI1 alleles found in the patient with PCD, reported elsewhere. Finally, this study demonstrates a link between ciliary function and situs determination, since compound mutation heterozygosity in DNAI1 results in PCD with situs solitus or situs inversus (KS).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Alternative Splicing / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Axonemal Dyneins
  • Base Sequence
  • Cilia / pathology
  • Cilia / ultrastructure
  • Ciliary Motility Disorders / genetics
  • Ciliary Motility Disorders / pathology
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Dyneins / chemistry
  • Dyneins / genetics*
  • Dyneins / ultrastructure
  • Exons / genetics
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Introns / genetics
  • Kartagener Syndrome / genetics*
  • Kartagener Syndrome / pathology
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Nuclear Family
  • Pedigree
  • Sperm Tail / pathology


  • DNAI1 protein, human
  • Axonemal Dyneins
  • Dyneins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AL359088