The use of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has undergone considerable expansion and evolution over the past 2 decades. Although myocardial perfusion imaging was first conceived as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for determining the presence or absence of coronary artery disease, its prognostic value is now well established. Thus, identification of patients at risk for future cardiac events has become a primary objective in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with chest pain syndromes and among patients with known coronary artery disease. In particular, the ability of myocardial perfusion SPECT to identify patients at low (< 1%), intermediate (1% to 5%) or high (> 5%) risk for future cardiac events is essential to patient management decisions. Moreover, previous studies have conclusively shown the incremental prognostic value of myocardial perfusion SPECT over clinical and treadmill exercise data in predicting future cardiac events. This report addresses the current role and new developments, with respect to the use of myocardial perfusion imaging, in determining patient risk for cardiac events and the cost-effective integration of such information into patient management decisions.