[Analysis of changes in heart rate and temperature of the ground squirrel Citellus undulatus in various physiological states]

Zh Obshch Biol. Jan-Feb 2001;62(1):66-77.
[Article in Russian]


Heart rate (HR) of ground squirrel C. undulatus was studied in dependence of season, level of activity, physiological state and air temperature (T). In summer HR varies from 110-130 beat/min in sleep up to 420 beat/min at flight from danger. During winter hibernation HP was minimal (3-5 beat/min) at T 1-4 degrees C, the increase in T induced the growth of HP in correspondence to the Arrenius van't Hoff law. The temperature of the body in hibernation exceeded T on 1.5-3 degrees C. The time of getting off the hibernation increased with the decrease in T (6-7 hours at -1 degree C and 2.5-3 hours at +18 degrees C). At phase of increased thermogenesis during arousal heart temperature exceeded rectal one on 10-12 degrees C and heart rate run up to 360-420 beat/min i.e. 2-3 time higher than in active state. The decrease in T stimulated the increase in HP up to 3.8 in winter and 5.3 beat/min/degree C in summer. The highest values of Q10 for HP were revealed at the beginning of hibernation (15-20) and at the beginning of arousal (6-7), in other periods Q10 was similar to the normal biological values (2-2.5). Thus, at the beginning of transitional periods changes of HP were determined mainly by endogenic mechanisms that inhibited myocardium at the beginning of hibernation and activated in arousal. Some mechanisms of coordination between activities of heart and other systems of organism are considered. The features of hit exchange providing the hibernation in wide range of T are discussed.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Temperature*
  • Heart Rate*
  • Hibernation
  • Sciuridae / physiology*
  • Seasons